What are the primary warning signs for children in kindergarten? Is it fair to judge them on their academics since some kids develop more slowly? Kindergarten is a time to start getting to the basics, so though they may all not be reading, there are certain benchmarks to keep in mind. They should be learning the alphabet as well as the sounds of the letters.

They should be learning to count. They should also be developing their fine motor skills: learning to copy words, cut paper into shapes. Most kindergartners begin to read simple words too. Those are the main indicators: Do they have their sounds, numbers, and letters? I used to teach general education teachers. For instance, a preschooler and a kindergartner will learn phonemes better than a first and second grader]. Once you hit first and second grade, you start going into content reading, and so kids who are still struggling with learning to read have a harder time.

Most kids learn to read and write with very little instruction.

They need it broken down and need it to be taught. With intensive instruction, they can get on track early before their self-esteem takes a hit. Kindergarten is also the age when some kids are having trouble reading because they are having trouble seeing accurately. Parents of first- and second-graders are typically watching their kids deal with more homework and lots of new academic demands. First-grade standards vary widely by district, but at this age kids should be reading words and simple sentences.

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At this point, they need to learn their phonics —the ability to sound out words. In the first few months of first grade, not all kids have this, but by January or February if they are not reading, you start getting really worried. Another warning sign is kids who are frustrated and angry and inattentive.

## What Is a High School Transcript? How Do You Use Yours?

At this point, kids should be able to listen to teachers and follow multi-step directions. Being able to sit still in circle time is another benchmark. In second grade, kids are expected to write longer sentences as well as short paragraphs. They should be able to talk about themselves and what they are learning. The red flags for third and fourth grade are actually similar to those for lower grades, but the expectations are higher. At this age you may see a decrease in school motivation.

They can be very slick at hiding things. I recall one fourth-grader who was good at faking everything — he was reading at a first-grade level, but no one knew. There are a lot of cover-up artists out there. A lot of these attractive, personable kids learn how to get people off their backs. Kids need to know that part of learning means working through hard things. I knew one kid with Down syndrome who was so tenacious — who stuck with it and stuck with it — she ended up reading at the level of her peers.

On the other hand, there are kids who have the intellect but give up. Parents need to know the benchmarks.

By fourth grade most kids can read aloud, and they can do spontaneous writing. There are a lot of trained teachers who can miss problems. If it was me as a parent, I would start the process of trying to assess my child, but then I would probably get some outside help. What happens in middle school? What are the signs that your child might be struggling with something beyond the huge transition from elementary school?

One major sign is not being able to handle their complicated schedules.

At this point, they have multiple teachers, and so this is the time when kids with LD suddenly have trouble with organization and turning in homework. You may notice your child is having a lot of trouble in and outside the classroom. It may become a problem for them academically.

### So easy. So fast. So Target.

Sometimes I see parents who may have homeschooled their kids or may be in denial that something is wrong. The kids may not test low enough to qualify for services [earlier on], but they are now struggling with writing, organization, and completing things on time. In high school sometimes the trigger is the college application process. We say that observer never sees you falling below even horizon. That's clear. But what if observer sends a light ray to the seemingly infinitely falling object?

Will the reflected photon return to the observer heavily redshifted, indeed or not? Space Time, In flat space-time there's no gravity, hence also no quantum gravity. Mohsin, We don't actually see it crossing the horizon, we see it dimming and vanishing and that's that. CIP, Of course the stress-energy-tensor changes when you boost it; it's not a scalar.

And an active boost is not the same as a coordinate transformation. If you bang an observer into Earth at high enough momentum, you will eventually create curvature large enough to make quantum gravitational effects relevant. If that's what you are trying to say, I agree.

But the point is, if you have any physical effect that depends on the choice of coordinate system, you have thrown out general covariance, and that's highly problematic. There is no reason to expect this to happen. There have been many conjectures about how advective accretion flows in low mass x-ray binary systems might provide examples of luminosity differences between neutron stars and black hole candidates, but none have been confirmed. I like the point 10 GR doesn't conserve energy and would add that this is a simple answer to a simple question: if light gets redshifted and red photons have less energy than blue photons, where does that energy go?

I am familiar with 9 infalling coordinates for Schwarzschild black holes but I am not sure that you never see the mass fall in. I got a lot out of the 6 quantum gravity is about high curvature , and it will be something I have to think a lot more about. I like to introduce people to 5 QM is nonlocal but doesn't transfer info with a cooperative game based on GHZ states that I call "betrayal". A team of 3 people works together to beat trials. Each trial, they go into relativistically separated rooms which have: two buttons labeled 0, 1, a screen giving instructions, and a timer counting down.

They press exactly one button after the instructions, before time runs out, and the 3 numbers are summed. The rest of the time we choose one at random to be a "traitor": we flash to them a false goal "make the sum of your numbers even," and to their two friends, we give the true goal "make the sum of your numbers odd. I like your point 3 think of particles seeking minimum energy as particles seeking maximum entropy For 1 I guess that's where I would take a real, if slight, disagreement.

The likelihood to be in a state comes from our uncertainty about the microscopic world, and this must be communicated to students otherwise they will fail to truly appreciate what we mean by "spontaneous," something like "our uncertainties multiply across calculations, so as it does things that we cannot observe, we must become less certain about internal state, but this causes macroscopic changes that we call spontaneous. With that said I do think it's very helpful to articulate this idea that "disorder" or "uncertainty" is more involved than its most obvious interpretation.

And I think it's good to get them to think about the fact that there is both position and momentum uncertainty and that by maximizing position uncertainty they minimized momentum uncertainty, so that everything "just lines up" as the system travels towards overall uncertainty. Sabine, I wrote non-flat. The question is about those space-times that are non-flat, the Riemann tensor is not zero, but have all curvature scalars equal to zero. Not just he scalar curvature but all scalars that you can get, not just from contraction of the Riemann tensor but from any polynomials of it and any polynomials of its derivatives.

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## The 5 Things We Should Have Learned in School — But Didn’t

Hi Sabine, on your last point, if energy increases, does that create new particles? Or does that affect the energy of the existing ones? If the answer to the second question is yes, then Brooklyn should shrink. Where am I wrong? Best, J. I suppose that calling entropy not to be "disorder" must depend on the meaning of the word "disorder". I taught physical chemisty for decades, and did indeed call it disorder. It seemed to me, and my students, that the arrangement with all of the oscillators in one state the average energy state was less disordered than the most probable arrangement approximating a Boltzmann distribution, and equalling it in the limit of a large number of oscillators.

The least ordered state is more probable, and in the true thermodynamic limit becomes the "only" occupied state. Homework: calculate the relative probability by hand for the most probable, least probable, and one selected at random arrangements. The actual oil-water case, as mentioned, is complicated by surface tension, and, for even an asteroid size ball of oil-glycerin so they don't evaporate , you must include gravity.

That's not even considering the kinetic aspects of reaching equilibrium Space time: I would be surprised if you could have a non-zero curvature tensor but all invariants vanishing. If it were a matrix, that would be impossible and my guess is the same is true for a four index object.