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The son of Robert Guiscard , Bohemond was on familiar ground across the Adriatic, where he had fought with his father and was understandably feared by the Byzantines. However, he was 40 years old when he arrived at Constantinople on April 9, , and determined to come to profitable terms with his former enemy. The third and largest army was assembled by Raymond of Saint-Gilles , the count of Toulouse.

The Long Crusade: Profiles in Education Reform, 1967-2014

At age 55, he was the oldest and most prominent of the princes on the Crusade, and he aspired and perhaps expected to become the leader of the entire expedition. Raymond led his followers, including a number of noncombatant pilgrims whom he supported at his own expense, across northern Italy, around the head of the Adriatic Sea , and then southward into Byzantine territory. This large body caused considerable trouble in Dalmatia and clashed with Byzantine troops as it approached the capital, where Raymond arrived on April Meanwhile, the fourth army, under Robert of Flanders , had crossed the Adriatic from Brindisi.

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No king took part in the First Crusade, and the predominantly French-speaking participants came to be known by the Muslims as Franks. The presence near Constantinople of massive military forces, numbering perhaps 4, mounted knights and 25, infantry , posed a serious problem for Alexius, and there was occasional disorder. Forced to consider imperial interests, which, it soon became evident, were different from the objective of the Crusaders, the emperor required each Crusade leader to promise under oath to restore to him any conquered territory that had belonged to the empire before the Turkish invasions and to swear loyalty to him while the Crusaders remained in his domain.

Since there was never any plan for the Crusade to go beyond the far-flung borders of the old Roman Empire , this would effectively give all conquests to the emperor.

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The others did so under duress, and Raymond swore only a lukewarm oath to respect the property and person of the emperor. You are using an outdated browser. Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience and security. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents.

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